Translation of important terms in the report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

2022-09-20 15:11:54 | Author:trans. by the Institute of Party History and Literature of the CPC Central Committee


Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era



the Party’s basic line

We must remain fully committed to the  Party’s basic line as the source that keeps  the Party and the country going and that  brings happiness to the people.



basic policy

the basic policy that underpins our  endeavors to uphold and develop socialism  with Chinese characteristics in the new era



principal contradiction facing Chinese society

As socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, the principal contradiction facing Chinese society has evolved. What we now face is the  contradiction between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life.


【例】大会的主题是:不忘初心,牢 记使命,高举中国特色社会主义伟大 旗帜,决胜全面建成小康社会,夺取新时代中国特色社会主义伟大胜利,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦不懈奋斗。

remain true to our original aspiration and keep our mission firmly in mind

The theme of the Congress is: Remain true to our original aspiration and keep our  mission firmly in mind, hold high the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, secure a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in  all respects, strive for the great success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, and work tirelessly to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation.


Chinese Dream


The Chinese nation has achieved a tremendous transformation: it has stood up, grown rich, and is becoming strong.


build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful



strategic vision for developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era

This is our strategic vision for developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the  new era: Finish building a moderately  prosperous society in all respects, move on  to basically realizing modernization, and then turn to making China a great modern socialist country in every dimension.


【例】中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会,是在全面建成小康社会决胜阶段、中国特色社会主义进入新时代的 关键时期召开的一次十分重要的大会。

decisive stage in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects

The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is a meeting of great importance taking place during the decisive stage in building a moderately  prosperous society in all respects and at a critical moment as socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era.


【例】全党要更加自觉地增强道路自 信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信, 既不走封闭僵化的老路,也不走改旗易帜的邪路,保持政治定力,坚持实干兴邦,始终坚持和发展中国特色社会主义。

confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese  characteristics

Our whole Party must strengthen our confidence in the path, theory, system, and  culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must neither retrace our steps to the rigidity and isolation of the  past, nor take the wrong turn by changing our nature and abandoning our system. We  must maintain our political orientation, do the good solid work that sees our country  thrive, and continue to uphold and develop  socialism with Chinese characteristics.


【例】伟大斗争,伟大工程,伟大事 业,伟大梦想,紧密联系、相互贯通、 相互作用,其中起决定性作用的是党的建设新的伟大工程。

great struggle, great project, great cause, and great dream

This great struggle, great project, great cause, and great dream are closely connected, flow seamlessly into each other, and are mutually reinforcing. Among them, the great new project of Party building plays the decisive role.

四个意识(政治意识、大局意识、核 心意识、看齐意识)

【例】推动全党尊崇党章,增强政治 意识、大局意识、核心意识、看齐意识,坚决维护党中央权威和集中统一领导,严明党的政治纪律和政治规矩,层层落实管党治党政治责任。

consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment

We encourage all Party members to hold the Party Constitution in great esteem. We urge them to strengthen their consciousness  of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment, and to uphold the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized, unified leadership. We have tightened political discipline and rules to ensure that political responsibility for governance over the Party  is fulfilled at each level of the Party organization.



important period of strategic opportunity

Both China and the world are in the midst of profound and complex changes. China is still in an important period of strategic opportunity for development; the prospects are bright but the challenges are severe.


five-sphere integrated plan (The five-sphere integrated plan is to  promote coordinated economic, political,  cultural, social, and ecological advancement.)


four-pronged comprehensive strategy (The four-pronged comprehensive strategy is to make comprehensive moves to finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, deepen reform, advance law-based governance, and strengthen Party self-governance.)



people-centered philosophy of development

Our philosophy of making development  people-centered has been acted on, a whole raft of initiatives to benefit the people has seen implementation, and the people’s sense of fulfillment has grown stronger.



new development philosophy

We have remained committed to the new development philosophy, adopted the right approach to development, and endeavored to transform the growth model. The result has been a constant improvement in the quality and effect of development.



modernize China’s system and capacity for governance

The system of socialism with Chinese characteristics has been further improved,  with notable progress made in modernizing  China’s system and capacity for governance. Throughout society, development is full of vitality and is driven by greater creativity.



underlying principle of pursuing  progress while ensuring stability

We have upheld the underlying principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability,  risen to challenges, pioneered and pushed ahead, and made historic achievements in reform, opening up, and socialist modernization.



holistic approach to national security

We should pursue a holistic approach to national security, ensure both development and security and be ever ready to protect against potential dangers in time of peace. This is a major principle underlying the Party’s governance.


【例】五年来,我们党以巨大的政治 勇气和强烈的责任担当,提出一系列新理念新思想新战略,出台一系列重大方针政策,推出一系列重大举措, 推进一系列重大工作,解决了许多长期想解决而没有解决的难题,办成了许多过去想办而没有办成的大事,推动党和国家事业发生历史性变革。

historic change; historic shift

For five years, our Party has demonstrated  tremendous political courage and a powerful sense of mission as it has developed new  ideas, new thinking, and new strategies, adopted a raft of major principles and policies, launched a host of major initiatives,  and pushed ahead with many major tasks.  We have solved many tough problems that were long on the agenda but never resolved,  and accomplished many things that were wanted but never got done. With this, we have prompted historic shifts in the cause of the Party and the country.


【例】要深刻认识党面临的执政考验、改革开放考验、市场经济考验、 外部环境考验的长期性和复杂性,深刻认识党面临的精神懈怠危险、能力不足危险、脱离群众危险、消极腐败 危险的尖锐性和严峻性,坚持问题导向,保持战略定力,推动全面从严治党向纵深发展。

focus on solving problems

We must fully recognize the long-term and complex nature of the tests confronting the  Party as they relate to governance, reform  and opening up, the market economy, and  the external environment. We must also  fully recognize the intensity and severity of  the dangers of a lack of drive, incompetence,  disengagement from the people, inaction, and corruption. So we must focus on solving problems, maintain strategic  resolve, and ensure strict Party self-governance.


a new normal in economic development



 a modernized economy

Developing a modernized economy is both an urgent requirement for getting us smoothly through this critical transition and a strategic goal for China’s development.

使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用, 更好发挥政府作用


see that the market plays the decisive  role in resource allocation and that the  government plays its role better

We must see that the market plays the decisive role in resource allocation, the  government plays its role better, and new  industrialization, IT application, urbanization, and agricultural modernization go hand in hand.


supply-side structural reform

三去一降一补(去产能、去库存、去 杠杆、降成本、补短板)

【例】坚持去产能、去库存、去杠杆、 降成本、补短板,优化存量资源配置, 扩大优质增量供给,实现供需动态平衡。

cut overcapacity, reduce excess  inventory, deleverage, lower costs, and strengthen areas of weakness

We will continue efforts to cut overcapacity,  reduce excess inventory, deleverage, lower costs, and strengthen areas of weakness, and  work to achieve a dynamic balance between  supply and demand by improving the  allocation of available resources and  increasing high-quality supply.


【例】积极促进“一带一路”国际合 作,努力实现政策沟通、设施联通、 贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通,打造国际合作新平台,增添共同发展新动力。

the Belt and Road Initiative

China will actively promote international cooperation through the Belt and Road  Initiative. In doing so, we hope to achieve policy, infrastructure, trade, financial, and people-to-people connectivity and thus build  a new platform for international cooperation to create new drivers of shared development.

三个攻坚战(防范化解重大风险、精 准脱贫、污染防治)

【例】特别是要坚决打好防范化解重 大风险、精准脱贫、污染防治的攻坚战,使全面建成小康社会得到人民认可、经得起历史检验。

forestall and defuse major risks, carry  out targeted poverty alleviation, and prevent and control pollution

I want to stress that we must take tough steps to forestall and defuse major risks,  carry out targeted poverty alleviation, and  prevent and control pollution, so that the moderately prosperous society we build earns the people’s approval and stands the test of time.


strategy for invigorating China through science and education


strategy on developing a quality  workforce


【例】创新驱动发展战略大力实施, 创新型国家建设成果丰硕,天宫、蛟 龙、天眼、悟空、墨子、大飞机等重大科技成果相继问世。

innovation-driven development strategy

Through devoting great energy to implementing the innovation-driven development strategy, we have seen much accomplished toward making China a country of innovators, with major advances made in science and technology, including the successful launch of Tiangong-2 space  lab, the commissioning of the deep-sea manned submersible Jiaolong and of the  five-hundred-meter aperture spherical  telescope (FAST) Tianyan, the launch of the dark matter probe satellite Wukong and the quantum science satellite Mozi, and the test flight of the airliner C919.


rural revitalization strategy


coordinated regional development strategy


sustainable development strategy


military-civilian integration strategy


a country of innovators; an innovative country


coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region


【例】以共抓大保护、不搞大开发为 导向推动长江经济带发展。

Yangtze Economic Belt

We will facilitate the development of the Yangtze Economic Belt by promoting  well-coordinated environmental conservation and avoiding excessive development.


【例】以疏解北京非首都功能为“牛 鼻子”推动京津冀协同发展,高起点规划、高标准建设雄安新区。

Xiongan New Area

We will relieve Beijing of functions nonessential to its role as the capital and  use this effort to drive the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei  region; and we will develop forward-looking plans and adopt high standards for building the Xiongan New Area.


【例】巩固和完善农村基本经营制度,深化农村土地制度改革,完善承 包地“三权”分置制度。

system for separating the ownership  rights, contract rights, and management  rights for contracted rural land

We will consolidate and improve the basic rural operation system, advance reform of the rural land system, and improve the system for separating the ownership rights, contract rights, and management rights for contracted rural land.


new urbanization


sharing economy


pilot free trade zone



negative list system

We will introduce a negative list for market access nationwide, sort through and do away with regulations and practices that impede the development of a unified market and fair competition, support the growth of private businesses, and stimulate the vitality of various market entities.



quality workmanship

We will build an educated, skilled, and innovative workforce, foster respect for model workers, promote quality workmanship, and see that taking pride in labor becomes a social norm and seeking excellence is valued as a good work ethic.


uphold the organic unity of Party leadership, the running of the country by the people, and law-based governance


strengthen oversight to ensure compliance with the Constitution



socialist consultative democracy

We will give play to the important role of socialist consultative democracy. The essence of the people’s democracy is that the people get to discuss their own affairs.


【例】要高举爱国主义、社会主义旗帜,牢牢把握大团结大联合的主题, 坚持一致性和多样性统一,找到最大公约数,画出最大同心圆。

balance commonality and diversity

We must uphold the banner of patriotism and socialism, strive to achieve great unity and solidarity, balance commonality and diversity, and expand common ground and the convergence of interests.


【例】构建亲清新型政商关系,促进非公有制经济健康发展和非公有制 经济人士健康成长。

form a new type of cordial and clean relationship between government and business

We should form a new type of cordial and clean relationship between government and business, promote healthy growth of the non-public sector of the economy, and encourage those working in this sector to achieve success.



a country’s cultural soft power

Our country’s underlying values hold  greater appeal than ever before, and the wave of positive energy felt throughout  society is building. We, the Chinese people,  have greater confidence in our own culture. China’s cultural soft power and the international influence of Chinese culture have increased significantly. There is greater unity in thinking both within the Party and throughout society.


core socialist values


【例】要坚持为人民服务、为社会主义服务,坚持百花齐放、百家争鸣, 坚持创造性转化、创新性发展,不断铸就中华文化新辉煌。

encourage creative transformation and development

We should ensure that this culture serves the people and serves socialism. We should  follow the principle of letting a hundred  flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend, and encourage creative transformation and development, so as to add new luster to Chinese culture.


【例】深入实施公民道德建设工程, 推进社会公德、职业道德、家庭美德、 个人品德建设,激励人们向上向善、 孝老爱亲,忠于祖国、忠于人民。

civic morality campaign

We will launch a civic morality campaign to raise public ethical standards, and enhance work ethics, family virtues, and personal  integrity. We will encourage our people to  strive for excellence and to develop stronger virtues, respect the elderly, love families, and be loyal to the country and the people.


new type of think tanks with distinctive Chinese features



tell China’s stories well

We will improve our capacity for engaging  in international communication so as to tell China’s stories well and present a true, multi-dimensional, and panoramic view of China.


ensure equitable access to basic public services



fairness in education

We should fully implement the Party’s  education policy, foster virtue through  education, enhance our students’well-rounded development, promote fairness in education, and nurture a new generation  of capable young people who have a good and all-round moral, intellectual, physical, and aesthetical grounding and are well-prepared to join the socialist cause.


【例】要坚持就业优先战略和积极就业政策,实现更高质量和更充分就 业。

better quality jobs and fuller employment

We must give high priority to employment and pursue a proactive employment policy, striving to achieve fuller employment and create better quality jobs.


strengthen the social security system


Housing is for living in, not for speculation.


Healthy China initiative



Peaceful China initiative

We will continue the Peaceful China initiative, strengthen and develop new forms of social governance, and ensure social harmony and stability. We must work hard to see that our country enjoys enduring peace and stability and our people live and work in contentment.



targeted poverty reduction and alleviation

We should mobilize the energies of our whole Party, our whole country, and our whole society, and continue to implement targeted poverty reduction and alleviation measures. We will operate on the basis of a working mechanism whereby the central government makes overall plans, provincial-level governments take overall responsibility, and city and county governments ensure implementation; and we will strengthen the system for making heads of Party committees and governments at each level assume the overall responsibility for poverty alleviation. We will continue to advance poverty reduction drawing on the joint efforts of government, society, and the market. We will pay particular attention to helping people increase confidence in their own ability to lift themselves out of poverty and see that they can access the education they need to do so. We will strengthen collaboration on poverty alleviation between the eastern and western regions; and we will provide focused assistance to areas of extreme poverty.



property income

We will expand the channels for people to make work-based earnings and property income.


sense of fulfillment


【例】必须树立和践行绿水青山就是金山银山的理念,坚持节约资源和保 护环境的基本国策,像对待生命一样对待生态环境。

Lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets.

We must realize that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets and act on this understanding, implement our fundamental national policy of conserving resources and protecting the environment, and cherish the environment as we cherish our own lives.


【例】实行最严格的生态环境保护制度,形成绿色发展方式和生活方式, 坚定走生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好的文明发展道路,建设美丽中国,为人民创造良好生产生活环境,为全 球生态安全作出贡献。

Beautiful China initiative

We will implement the strictest possible systems for environmental protection, and develop eco-friendly growth models and ways of life. We must pursue a model of sustainable development featuring increased production, higher living standards, and healthy ecosystems. We must continue the Beautiful China initiative to create good working and living environments for our  people and play our part in ensuring global ecological security.


green development



dream of building a powerful military

With a view to realizing the Chinese Dream and the dream of building a powerful military, we have developed a strategy for the military under new circumstances, and have made every effort to modernize national defense and the armed forces.



goal of building a strong military in the new era

It makes clear that the Party’s goal of building a strong military in the new era is to build the people’s forces into world-class  forces that obey the Party’s command, can fight and win, and maintain excellent  conduct.


strategy for the military under new circumstances; military strategy for new conditions


new military structure with the Central Military Commission exercising overall  leadership, the theater commands responsible for military operations, and the services focusing on developing capabilities


enhance the political loyalty of the armed forces, strengthen them through reform and technology, and run them in  accordance with law 7


revolutionary officers and soldiers of a new era with faith, ability, courage, and integrity



sense of community for the Chinese nation We will fully implement the Party’s policies concerning ethnic groups, heighten public awareness of ethnic unity and progress, and create a strong sense of community for the Chinese nation. We will encourage more exchanges and interactions among different ethnic groups, helping them remain closely united like the seeds of a pomegranate that stick together, and work jointly for common prosperity and development.


principle of One Country, Two Systems


maintain prosperity and stability in Hong Kong and Macao


1992 Consensus


【例】我们秉持“两岸一家亲”理念, 尊重台湾现有的社会制度和台湾同胞生活方式,愿意率先同台湾同胞分享大陆发展的机遇。

conviction that we are all of the same family Guided by the conviction that we are all of  the same family, we respect the current social system and way of life in Taiwan and  are ready to share the development opportunities on the mainland with our Taiwan compatriots first.


oppose and deter separatist elements advocating“Taiwan independence”


【例】中国将高举和平、发展、合作、 共赢的旗帜,恪守维护世界和平、促进共同发展的外交政策宗旨,坚定不移在和平共处五项原则基础上发展同各国的友好合作,推动建设相互尊重、公平正义、合作共赢的新型国际关系。

new form of international relations

China will continue to hold high the banner of peace, development, cooperation, and mutual benefit and uphold its fundamental foreign policy goal of preserving world peace and promoting common development. China remains firm in its commitment to strengthening friendship and cooperation with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and to forging a new form of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness, justice, and win-win cooperation.


communication, not confrontation, and partnership, not alliance


build a community with a shared future for humanity 


encourage the evolution of the global governance system


international influence, ability to inspire, and power to shape


【例】中国积极发展全球伙伴关系,扩大同各国的利益交汇点,推进大国协调和合作,构建总体稳定、均衡发展的大国关系框架,按照亲诚惠容理 念和与邻为善、以邻为伴周边外交方 针深化同周边国家关系,秉持正确义利观和真实亲诚理念加强同发展中 国家团结合作。

amity, sincerity, mutual benefit, and inclusiveness

China has actively developed global partnerships and expanded the convergence of interests with other countries. China will promote coordination and cooperation with other major countries and work to build a framework for major country relations featuring overall stability and balanced development. China will deepen relations with its neighbors in accordance with the principle of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit, and inclusiveness and the policy of forging friendship and partnership with its neighbors. China will, guided by the principle of upholding justice while pursuing shared interests and the principle of sincerity, real results, affinity, and good faith, work to strengthen solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries.


general requirements for Party building in the new era


the Party’s ability to lead politically, to guide through theory, to organize the  people, and to inspire society



political discipline and rules

We have tightened political discipline and rules to ensure that political responsibility for governance over the Party is fulfilled at each level of the Party organization.


uphold the authority of the Central Committee and its centralized, unified leadership


make intraparty activities more politically oriented, up-to-date, principled, and effective


political orientation


political ecosystem


Three Stricts and Three Earnests (The Three Stricts and Three Earnests are: to be strict with oneself in practicing self-cultivation, using power, and  exercising self-discipline; and to be earnest in one’s thinking, work, and behavior.)


requirement for all Party members to have a solid understanding of the Party  Constitution, Party regulations, and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s major policy addresses and to meet Party standards


standards fitting for a new era to assess the caliber of officials


【例】统筹推进党的各项建设,抓住 “关键少数”。

key few

We must strengthen Party competence in all respects, and focus on oversight over the “key few,” by which we mean leading officials.


strengthen every dimension of our ability for governance 

坚持战略思维、创新思维、辩证思维、 法治思维、底线思维

【例】增强政治领导本领,坚持战略思维、创新思维、辩证思维、法治思维、底线思维,科学制定和坚决执行党的路线方针政策,把党总揽全局、 协调各方落到实处。

adopt a strategic perspective, develop creative thinking and a dialectical approach to thinking, think in terms of the rule of law, and think about worst-case scenarios

We should be good at exercising political leadership. We should adopt a strategic perspective, and develop creative thinking and a dialectical approach to thinking; we should think in terms of the rule of law, and think about worst-case scenarios. We should formulate sound Party lines, principles, and  policies and resolutely implement them,  ensuring that the Party exercises overall leadership and coordinates work in all areas.



perseverance to hammer away until a task is done

We should be good at implementing policy. We should be open and frank, take effective measures to address real issues, and seek good outcomes. We should be ready both to act resolutely and swiftly and to make sustained efforts to tackle tough issues head-on. We should have the perseverance  to hammer away until a task is done, and make concrete, meticulous, and effective efforts in all our work.


intraparty oversight


【例】要以提升组织力为重点,突出政治功能,把企业、农村、机关、学校、科研院所、街道社区、社会组织等基层党组织建设成为宣传党的主张、贯彻党的决定、领导基层治理、 团结动员群众、推动改革发展的坚强战斗堡垒。

primary-level Party organization

We will work to ensure that primary-level Party organizations in enterprises, villages, Party and government departments, schools, research institutes, sub-districts, communities, and social organizations play a key role in communicating the Party’s propositions, carrying out the Party’s decisions, overseeing community-level social governance, uniting and mobilizing the people, and promoting reform and development. In doing so, we will focus on improving the organizational capability of primary-level Party organizations and give priority to enhancing their political functions.


central Party leadership’s eight-point decision on improving conduct and maintaining close bond with the people


take tough action against the practice of  pointless formalities, bureaucratism,  hedonism, and extravagance



disciplinary inspection

Disciplinary inspections have cut like a blade through corruption and misconduct; they have covered every Party committee in all departments at the central and provincial levels.



disciplinary inspection system

We will institute a system of disciplinary inspection for city and county level Party committees in an intensified effort to address corruption that occurs on the people’s doorsteps.



reform of the national supervision system

We will deepen reform of the national supervision system, and conduct trials throughout the country.


【例】坚持反腐败无禁区、全覆盖、 零容忍,坚定不移“打虎”、“拍蝇”、 “猎狐”,不敢腐的目标初步实现,不能腐的笼子越扎越牢,不想腐的堤坝正在构筑,反腐败斗争压倒性态势已经形成并巩固发展。

“take out tigers,”“swat flies,” and“hunt down foxes”

No place has been out of bounds, no ground left unturned, and no tolerance shown in the fight against corruption. We have taken  firm action to “take out tigers,”“swat  flies,”and“hunt down foxes.”The goal of creating a deterrent against corruption has been initially attained; the cage of institutions that prevents corruption has been strengthened; and moral defenses against corruption are in the making. The anti-corruption campaign has built into a crushing tide, and is being consolidated and developed.

党自我净化、自我完善、自我革新、 自我提高的能力

the Party’s ability to purify, improve, and reform itself


accomplish the three historic tasks of advancing modernization, realizing China’s reunification, and preserving world peace and promoting common development